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Screenshot of the FreeNAS 11 web interface
Screenshot of the FreeNAS 11 web interface
Stable release
TrueNAS-12.0-U1 / 9 December 2020; 38 days ago[1]
RepositoryEdit this at Wikidata
Operating systemFreeBSD
Platformx86-64, v9.2.1.9 was the last release that supported 32-bit.[2]
TypeComputer storage
LicenseBSD license

TrueNAS (called FreeNAS prior to version 12.0) is a free and open-source network-attached storage (NAS) operating system based on FreeBSD and the OpenZFS file system. It is licensed under the terms of the BSD License and runs on commodity x86-64 hardware. TrueNAS supports WindowsmacOS and Unix clients and various virtualization hosts such as XenServer and VMware using the SMBAFPNFSiSCSISSHrsync and FTP/TFTP protocols. Advanced TrueNAS features include full-disk encryption and a plug-in architecture for third-party software.[3][4][5][6][7][8]

The OpenZFS file system[edit]

TrueNAS supports the OpenZFS filesystem which provides data integrity checking to prevent data corruption, enable point in time snapshottingreplication and several levels of redundancy including stripingmirroringstriped mirrors (RAID 1+0), and three levels of RaidZ.

User experience[edit]

TrueNAS is managed through a comprehensive web interface that is supplemented by a minimal shell console that handles essential administrative functions. The web interface supports storage pool configuration, user management, sharing configuration and system maintenance. As an embedded system appliance, TrueNAS boots from a USB Flash device or SATA DOM. This image is configured using a USB Flash/CD-ROM bootable installer. The TrueNAS operating system is fully independent of its storage disks, allowing its configuration database and encryption keys to be backed up and restored to a fresh installation of the OS. This separation also allows for TrueNAS system upgrades to be performed through the web interface.


The FreeNAS project was started in October 2005 by Olivier Cochard-Labbé who based it on the m0n0wall embedded firewall and FreeBSD 6.0. Volker Theile joined the project in July 2006 and became the project lead in April 2008. In September 2009, the development team concluded that the project, then at release .7, was due for a complete rewrite in order to accommodate modern features such as a plug-in architecture. Volker Theile decided that the project best be reimplemented using Debian Linux and shifted his development efforts to the interim CoreNAS project and eventually OpenMediaVault where he continues as the project lead. Cochard-Labbé responded to community objections to « The Debian version of FreeNAS » and resumed activity in the project and oversaw its transfer to FreeNAS user iXsystems.[9][10] Developers Daisuke Aoyama and Michael Zoon continued developing FreeNAS 7 as the NAS4Free project. Meanwhile, iXsystems rewrote FreeNAS with a new architecture based on FreeBSD 8.1, releasing FreeNAS 8 Beta in November 2010.[11] The plug-in architecture arrived with FreeNAS 8.2 and FreeNAS versioning was synchronized with FreeBSD for clarity. FreeNAS 8.3 introduced full-disk encryption and FreeBSD 9.1-based FreeNAS 9.1 brought an updated plug-in architecture that is compatible with the TrueOS Warden jail management framework. FreeNAS 9.1 was also the first version of FreeNAS to use the community-supported OpenZFS v5000 with Feature Flags.[12][13] FreeNAS 9.2, based on FreeBSD 9.2 included performance improvements and introduced a REST API for remote system administration.[14] FreeNAS 9.3, based on FreeBSD 9.3 introduced a ZFS-based boot device, an initial Setup Wizard and a high-performance in-kernel iSCSI server.[15] FreeNAS 9.10, based on FreeBSD 10.3-RC3 brought an end to the FreeNAS/FreeBSD synchronized naming and introduced Graphite monitoring support and experimental support for the bhyve hypervisor.[16]

In October 2015, ten years after the original FreeNAS release, FreeNAS 10 ALPHA was released, providing a preview of what would become FreeNAS Corral GA on March 15, 2017.[17] FreeNAS Corral introduced a new graphical user interfacecommand-line interface, underlying middlewarecontainer management system and virtual machine management system.[18] FreeNAS Corral departs from FreeNAS by providing not only NAS functionality but also hyper-converged functionality thanks to its integrated virtual machine support. However, on April 12, 2017 iXsystems announced that FreeNAS Corral would instead be relegated to being a ‘Technology Preview’, citing issues such as « general instability, lack of feature parity with 9.10 (Jails, iSCSI, etc), and some users experiencing lower performance than expected »[19] and the departure of the project lead. Instead, the decision was made to revert to the existing 9.10 code and bring Corral features to 9.10.3 and further.

In May 2017, iXsystems announced that FreeNAS 11 would be imminently released, which was based on 9.10 but included features such as an update of the FreeBSD operating system, virtual machine management, updates to jails, and a new beta user interface along the lines of Corral but based on Angular JS.

In March 2020, iXsystems announced that the 12.0 release will merge the FreeNAS code base with that of their commercial TrueNAS offering. FreeNAS will become TrueNAS CORE while TrueNAS will be renamed TrueNAS Enterprise.[20] This change was made official with the release of TrueNAS 12.0 on October 20, 2020.[21]

In October 2020, iXsystems announced a new product, TrueNAS SCALE would be developed. It would still use ZFS, but be based on Linux. [22]


The 8.0 reimplementation of FreeNAS moved the project from a m0n0BSD/m0n0wall/PHP-based architecture to one based on FreeBSD‘s NanoBSD embedded build system, the Python programming language, the Django web application framework and the dōjō toolkit (JavaScript library).[23] It also used the lighttpd web server, but this was replaced with nginx in FreeNAS 8.2. The terminated successor to 9.10.2, known as FreeNAS Corral, retained the nginx web server and ZFS-based boot device of FreeNAS but replaces the Django/dōjō web application framework with an original one. FreeNAS 11 implemented a new interface using Angular JS.

Version history[edit]

BranchInitial releaseLatest BuildReleasedFreeBSD versionStatusNotes / Changes
9.102016-03-239.10.2-U42017-05-2510.3 STABLEPrevious Release[24]
10.0 (« Corral »)2017-03-15N/A  Withdrawn: relegated to preview onlyThe « Corral » branch was cancelled on or around 23 April 2017, the developers citing as reasons that although it had been a major « ground up » rewrite of FreeNAS, too many issues had emerged within 2 weeks of release. Development reverted to the proven 9.10 branch of FreeNAS and the Corral branch was relegated to a « technology preview ».[25][26]
11.0[27]2017-06-14RELEASE2017-06-1411 STABLEPrevious release(Compared to 9.10 branch):[28][29]
  • Beta version of new user interface based on Angular JS (optional)
  • Built-in Virtual Machine management (default hypervisor: bhyve)
  • Updated alerts system and support for multiple alert services
  • Jails management via iocage
  • 20% speed improvement of FreeBSD kernel compared to 9.10.[29]
  • Amazon S3 compatible object storage services, allowing S3 based cloud services to run on a FreeNAS platform
  • Enhancements to Active Directory services to maintain services and consistent mappings if networking is disrupted.
  • Updates to Samba (4.6.3) and Netatalk (3.1.10)
11.12017-12-13RELEASE2017-12-1311 STABLEPrevious ReleaseChanges include the addition of cloud synchronization and preliminary Docker container support, as well as updates to the Angular-based administrative GUI and noticeable OpenZFS improvements for handling large files and multiple snapshots.[30][31]
11.22018-07-09[32]RELEASE2018-12-0511.2 STABLE[33]Previous ReleaseHighlights from release announcement:[34]
  • New, Angular-based UI
  • Boot loader has changed from GRUB to the native FreeBSD boot loader
  • Plugins and Jails backend has switched from warden to iocage
  • Support has been added for Self-Encrypting Drives (SEDs)
  • OpenZFS is up-to-date with Illumos
11.32019-11-15[35]RELEASE2020-01-2811.3 STABLE[36]Previous releaseHighlights from release announcement:[36]
  • Re-implemented Replication Engine, allows up to 10Gb replication speeds (a 10x improvement), resume support on failed transfers, as well as ability to replicate locally.
  • ACL Manager – Allows setup and management of SMB ACL’s directly via the FreeNAS web interface.
  • SMB Shadow Copies are now enabled by default for new shares – Note: Snapshots will only show up in Windows “Previous Versions Tab” if the snapshot USED size shows changes to the file.
  • A repository of Community plugins has been created, users can now create and distribute 3rd party plugins which are not officially iXsystems supported.
  • Updated translations for Czech, French, Japanese, Russian, and Simplified Chinese. Additionally, the process to add additional translations has been greatly improved.
  • iSCSI Wizard – Streamlines the process of creating new iSCSI targets down to a few clicks.
  • Alert System Overhaul – More granular alerts, as well as controls to set alert thresholds.
  • Dashboard Updates – The initial dashboard now shows a live view of system status, including network traffic, CPU / memory utilization and more.
  • NAT Support for Plugins – Eliminates the need for each plugin to have a dedicated IP address on your network.
  • Full featured 2.0 API – Includes both REST and Websocket connections, allowing FreeNAS to be fully scripted and driven via the same API used by the web-interface.
  • Large Pool Creation Assistance – When creating ZFS pools with large number of disks, the UI provides an automated way to repeat a VDEV layout across all remaining disks.
  • ZFS Performance optimizations across the board for many different workloads.
12.02020-10-20[21]RELEASE2020-10-2012.0-STABLECurrent release* Native ZFS encryption, allowing per-dataset encryption and
  • 2 factor authentication support, allowing an extra layer of security when accessing TrueNAS
  • KNIP support – allowing interfacing with KNIP servers for storage and retrieval of passwords and encryption keys
  • TrueNAS API 2.0 now supports API keys for remote access. API v1.0 has been deprecated.
  • Fusion pool support, allowing flash-based VDEVS that store metadata and small-block IO
  • OpenVPN support (both server and client)
  • TrueCommand cloud client integration[21]

Current release features and plugins[edit]

Features and plugins shown are for the 11.0 branch.


Administrative features
  • Web-based graphical user interface with optional SSL encryption
  • Localized into over 20 languages[38]
  • Web, console, and SSH access configurable
  • Plug-in Architecture (see list below)
  • Performance graphing
  • Wide range of configurable alerts and alerting mechanisms, including log emails and reporting notification
  • Downloadable configuration file and encryption keys
  • S.M.A.R.T. disk diagnostics
  • Local certificate management, including Certificate Authority role.
  • 2 factor authentication, LDAP, Active Directory, RADIUS, IPSec, Kerberos and other authentication/user management systems supported in FreeBSD and therefore available for FreeNAS (Note: some but not all supported in GUI).
File system features
  • Highly resilient ZFS file system with Feature Flags (OpenZFS v5000) and theoretical storage limit of 16 Exabytes. ZFS file system features are fully configurable and include:
  • Compression (including lz4 and gzip),
  • Full-volume encryption (Disk encryption with GELI and AESNI hardware acceleration),
  • Snapshots (which can be near-continual; snapshotting every 15-30 minutes is not uncommon),
  • Data deduplication
  • User quotas
  • Physical disks are fully portable and can be moved without data loss to other FreeNAS servers, or to any other Operating System that supports a compatible version of OpenZFS.
  • Data reliability features – mirroring / RAID (including ZFS RaidZ), multiple copies of selected data and metadata for reliability, and entire-system checksumming and background data repair as needed (« scrubbing ») (see also: ZFS generally, which was designed expressly with the aim of ensuring data preservation)
  • Server reliability features –
  • Replicationfallover and failover,
  • Multi-version boot environment – the boot menu provides access to previous versions of FreeNAS which have been upgraded. In the event of a boot issue or system problem, FreeNAS can also load any of these at boot, as « known good » versions, without « rolling back » the server.
  • Disk read and data import for UFS2, NTFS, FAT32 and EXT2/3
  • User/Group permissions – Classic Unix/Linux permissions and/or ACL based (including ACLs for Microsoft file systems)
Built-in network services and features
  • Protocols as standard – Samba/SMB/CIFS (for Microsoft and other networks), AFP (Apple), NFSiSCSIFTP/TFTP
  • LDAP and Active Directory client support with Windows ACLs
  • Apple Time Machine and Microsoft File History/Previous Versions support
  • rsync data sync and replication (server/client)
  • Link aggregation and failover
  • VLAN networking
  • Dynamic DNS client
  • Remote syslogd forwarding
  • SNMP monitoring
  • Wide range of networking hardware and environments supported by FreeBSD, including copper cable, fiberoptic cable, WiFi
  • Supports jumbo frames, hardware offloading (exact features offloaded vary by adapter), high bandwidth servicing (10G+)
  • UPS (Uninterruptible power supply) support
  • Virtual Machine host and management with GUI based management
  • Jail management and templates – As of 11.0 release, FreeNAS is part-way switched from warden to iocage as jail manager; full iocage support is planned for 11.1
  • iozone, netperf, OpenVPN, tmux and other utilities
  • Over 20,000 packages and ports available and able to be installed from FreeBSD repositories.



  • VMware — « Ultimate Virtual Appliance Challenge, Consumer »[39]
  • sourceforge.net — Project of the Month, January 2007[40]
  • InfoWorld — Best of open source in storage[41]

Ventes de PC dans le monde et EMEA

Ventes de PC dans le monde et EMEA

Le travail à distance bénéficie au PC – Au troisième trimestre 2020, les livraisons mondiales d’ordinateur atteignent 71,4 millions d’unités, soit une augmentation de 3,6 % par rapport au troisième trimestre 2019 selon Gartner. D’après Canalys, la croissance est même encore plus forte. Le cabinet évalue à 28,3% la hausse des livraisons d’ordinateurs portables et de stations de travail mobiles sur un an. Cela a contribué à faire progresser les expéditions totales de PC de 12,7 % pour atteindre 79,2 millions d’unités.

Canalys évalue à 64,6 millions le nombre d’ordinateurs portables expédiés par l’industrie PC. Les chiffres de Canalys concernant les ordinateurs portables incluent les Chromebook, mais pas les tablettes ou les détachables. La tendance n’est pas la même du côté des ordinateurs de bureau. Une des conséquences de la pandémie et du développement du télétravail. Ainsi, le passage au travail à distance a fait chuter les expéditions de PC de bureau de 26 % par rapport à 2019.

« Le marché des PC d’entreprise a connu une dynamique plus prudente ce trimestre. Les entreprises ont continué à acheter des PC pour le travail à distance, mais l’accent est passé de l’achat urgent d’appareils à l’optimisation des coûts. Cependant, les dépenses des entreprises sont restées fortes là où les financements publics pour l’enseignement à distance et le travail à distance ont alimenté les achats de terminaux, comme aux États-Unis et au Japon » commente Mikako Kitagawa, directeur de recherche pour Gartner.

2020 sera peut-être l’année du rebond pour le marché des PC, et ce sans même tenir compte du succès du moment des Chromebooks. En effet, au 3e trimestre, les livraisons de Chromebook augmentaient d’environ 90% sur un an. Cette demande a été stimulée par l’enseignement à distance en raison de la pandémie, en particulier sur le marché de l’éducation aux États-Unis. Si l’on inclut les Chromebooks, le marché mondial total des PC a augmenté d’environ 9% par an, les Chromebooks représentant environ 11% du marché combiné PC/Chromebook.


Livraisons trimestrielles de PC dans le monde (millionsd’unités)AutresAppleAsusAcerDellLenovoHPQ1 2012Q4 2012Q3 2013Q2 2014Q1 2015Q4 2015Q3 2016Q2 2017Q1 2018Q4 2018Q3 2019Q2 20200255075100Source Gartner – via ZDNet.fr/chiffres-cles
Q1 201215,311,69,89,85,5037,1
Q2 20121312,89,39,66,1036,5
Q3 201213,613,89,28,66,4036
Q4 201214,64149,27,76,66036,5
Q1 201311,7711,648,756,535,06034,14
Q2 201312,2612,68,976,414,63030,8
Q3 201313,6214,099,286,264,9031,59
Q4 201313,5915,159,816,086,22032,07
Q1 201412,1412,849,525,565,46030,1
Q2 201413,1714,4410,085,715,18026,97
Q3 201414,2115,710,186,835,76026,68
Q4 201415,4516,0610,785,936,25,5122,63
Q1 201512,4413,589,035,185,3026,17
Q2 201512,0613,499,494,44,634,7918,97
Q3 201513,7414,789,855,375,275,718,35
Q4 201514,215,3810,235,2765,6718,94
Q1 201611,3812,229,044,265,284,0317,48
Q2 201612,2813,39,424,44,54,2515,71
Q3 201613,9814,5710,195,374,884,6115,88
Q4 201615,0815,8510,764,995,335,3715,59
Q1 201712,1112,379,354,194,544,2115,38
Q2 201712,6912,189,553,854,034,2314,54
Q3 201713,7714,3510,24,324,775,3814,34
Q4 201716,0915,6910,764,724,715,1114,59
Q1 201812,8512,349,883,823,94,2614,6
Q2 201813,5813,610,453,9604,3916,08
Q3 201814,6215,8810,734,074,014,9212,93
Q4 201815,3816,6210,913,864,214,9212,71
Q1 201912,8213,199,983,323,63,9711,61
Q2 201913,9915,7710,653,393,13,7112,34
Q3 201915,3316,911,343,924,25,1312,01
Q4 201916,1217,4912,113,994,065,2611,55
Q1 202011,1112,6110,152,92,63,558,69
Q2 202016,1616,1910,6443,594,369,82
Q3 202015,4418,3110,825,084,745,5111,44





Lenovo bat des records – Un groupe profite à plein de l’explosion du télétravail : le Chinois Lenovo. Le premier fabricant mondial de PC a enregistré un bénéfice record de l’ordre de 310 millions de dollars au troisième trimestre de l’exercice actuel, en hausse de 53 % sur un an. « Le dernier trimestre a été ce que j’appellerais un trimestre parfait pour Lenovo », s’est d’ailleurs réjoui son président Yang Yuanqing lors de la présentation de ces résultats.

Lenovo renforce ainsi sa position de leader dans le domaine des PC avec 25,7% du marché, devant HP Inc et Dell Technologies, qui détenaient respectivement 21,6 % et 15,2 % des livraisons Et cette bonne dynamique devrait continuer alors que le président de Lenovo a ainsi prédit une nouvelle augmentation de 5 à 10% du marché total des PC dans l’ensemble du secteur l’année prochaine.

Le podium des trois premiers fournisseurs de PC traditionnels reste inchangé par rapport au trimestre précédent, bien que Lenovo ait augmenté son avance sur HP. Les fournisseurs axés sur le grand public, tels qu’Apple, Acer et Asus, ont connu une croissance supérieure à celle du reste du marché au troisième trimestre 2020.


Livraisons mondiales de terminaux (millions d’unités)Téléph…Ultram…Ultrap…PC201420152016201720182019202001 0002 0003 000Source Gartner – via ZDNet.fr/chiffres-cles
Terminaux connectésPCUltraportablesUltramobiles (tablettes)Téléphones
2014277372261 879
2015244441961 917
2016220501691 893
2017204591601 855
2018195,364,4149,61 813,4
2019193,169,5143,91 753,9
2020169,665,5133,21 498,5



Les livraisons mondiales de terminaux (PC, tablettes et téléphones portables) sont attendues en baisse de 13,6% en 2020. Elles devraient donc atteindre 1,9 milliard d’unités, selon les prévisions de Gartner.

« Le déclin prévu sur le marché des PC en particulier aurait pu être bien pire » relativise cependant Ranjit Atwal, directeur de recherche senior chez Gartner. « Cependant, les fermetures gouvernementales dues au COVID-19 ont forcé les entreprises et les écoles à permettre à des millions de personnes de travailler à domicile et à augmenter les dépenses pour l’achat de nouveaux ordinateurs portables, de Chromebooks et de tablettes pour ces travailleurs. L’éducation et les établissements publics ont également augmenté leurs dépenses sur ces appareils pour faciliter l’apprentissage en ligne » poursuit-il.

Du côté des téléphones portables, les livraisons devraient plonger de 14,6% en 2020. Le smartphone ne se porte en effet pas mieux avec un recul attendu de 13,7% d’une année sur l’autre pour atteindre un total de 1,3 milliard d’unités en 2020.


Livraisons mondiales de PC (desktop et portables) enmillions d’unitésLivrais…201220132014201520162017201820192020 prévision0100200300400Source Gartner – via ZDNet.fr/chiffres-cles
AnnéesLivraisons mondiales de PC
2020 prévision169,65



En 2020, les livraisons de PC devraient diminuer de 10,5%. Les livraisons d’ordinateurs portables, de tablettes et de Chromebooks sont attendues en repli également. La baisse sera cependant moins prononcée que pour l’ensemble du marché des PC en 2020.


Livraisons mondiales de PC dans le monde (millionsd’unités, ultraportables compris)Ventesmondi…2008200920102011201220132014201520162017201820192020 pr…200250300350400Source Gartner – via ZDNet.fr/chiffres-cles
AnnéesVentes mondiales
2020 prévisions235,1


Livraisons mondiales de PC de 2011 à 2019 (millions)AppleAutresAsusAcerDellLenovoHP2011201220132014201520162017201820190100200300400Source Gartner – via ZDNet.fr/chiffres-cles


Les livraisons mondiales de PC atteignaient 261,2 millions d’unités en 2019, ce qui représente une augmentation de 0,6% par rapport à 2018. C’est la première fois en sept ans que le marché mondial des PC enregistre de la croissance.

« En ce qui concerne la performance des fournisseurs, les trois premiers ont connu une croissance plus rapide que le marché lui-même, gagnant une part de marché combinée de 63,1% en 2019 contre 60,2% en 2018. L’accent qu’ils ont mis sur le marché des entreprises » analyse Gartner.

iOS 14.4: Beta 2 has been released

iOS 14.4: Beta 2 has been released

Just two days after releasing iOS 14.3 with several significant new features like ProRAW photos and Fitness+, Apple started the beta testing process for iOS 14.4. Since this is a full point-release number than a minor one (e.g. iOS 14.3.1), we expect there to be some user-facing changes present.

Update 01/13/21: After apparently taking some time off for the holidays, beta releases are back. Beta 2 has been released for developers, and the public beta is expected to follow within a day or so.

What’s new in iOS 14.4

We don’t yet know the full extent of the new features we can expect from iOS 14.4. As the community of beta testers discovers significant changes, we’ll update this article with more information. 

HomePod mini U1 features

Some beta testers that also have access to the HomePod 14.4 beta say that this update finally enables the U1-based proximity features of the HomePod mini.

How to get the iOS 14.4 beta

Registered developers can download the beta profile to their iPhone or iPad by going to developer.apple.com/download on the device upon which they wish to run the beta. Sign in there, download the beta profile, and enable it in Settings > General > Profile. You’ll have to restart your iPhone or iPad, and then open Settings > Software Update to download and install the new version of iOS.

If you’re not a developer and wish to participate in the public beta test, go to beta.apple.com on the iPhone or iPad you wish to run the beta on. Tap Sign Up to sign in with your Apple ID and follow the instructions to download the beta profile.

You’ll need to make sure it’s enabled by going to Settings > General > Profile and tapping on the beta profile, then making sure it’s enabled. Then reset your device, and download the latest beta by going to Settings > General > Software Update.

Note: When you purchase something after clicking links in our articles, we may earn a small commission. Read our affiliate link policy for more details.

Samsung will soon offer higher-capacity 2TB 980 Pro SSDs in the UK


Samsung will soon offer higher-capacity 2TB 980 Pro SSDs in the UK


Pre-orders are open now for storage fiend

In brief: Black Friday and Cyber Monday deals are finally winding down, and hardware makers are starting to shift their attention back to the announcement of new products. Today, Samsung revealed that its incredibly fast 980 Pro NVMe M.2 SSD is getting a major storage upgrade. Starting now, UK customers can pre-order 2TB variants — twice the maximum capacity of current 980 Pros — of the drive, which is set to ship in January.

Of course, the 2TB version of the device will not come cheap; especially with the previously-mentioned Cyber Monday and Black Friday deals out of the picture. If you want to snag one now, you’re going to be paying the full price of £455.99, which converts to around $600. However, we should note that pure currency conversions are not always a reliable way to gauge regional pricing.

Since the 1TB 980 Pro, with all the same specs) only costs about $230, we expect the 2TB model to be roughly double that price, so perhaps it will come in at around the $470-$500 mark.

Regardless, Samsung notes that the 980 Pro is its first-ever consumer PCIe 4.0 drive, designed for « graphics-intensive games » and « heavy-duty applications. » It is backward compatible with the PCIe 3.0 NVMe interface, and lower-capacity models feature read speeds of up to 3,500 MB/s and write speeds of up to 2,700 MB/s.

We specify « lower-capacity models » because Samsung’s 2TB 980 Pro listing only lists read/write speeds of « TBA MB/sec Seq., » which is obviously not very precise. However, performance will almost certainly not drop below what cheaper variants can offer, so rest assured that you’ll still be getting a speedy storage experience if you grab one of these.

If you want to pre-order a 2TB 980 Pro now, you can do so through Scan. When the drive begins shipping, the site promises 1-5 day delivery speeds, and 48-hour replacements if something goes wrong.

SSD prices could drop as much as 15 percent next quarter due to continued NAND flash oversupply

SSD prices could drop as much as 15 percent next quarter due to continued NAND flash oversupply


Editor’s take: The oversupply situation in the NAND flash industry is only expected to become more severe as we head into 2021 and could ultimately lead to even more affordable solid-state drives. As such, some enthusiasts are no doubt wondering if they should buy that new SSD now to take advantage of holiday pricing or wait until next quarter and purchase based on TrendForce’s forecast.

Market research firm TrendForce in its latest forecast said it expects the average selling price of NAND flash to decline by 10-15 percent in the first quarter of 2021. As a result, TrendForce anticipates client SSD prices to drop by the same percentage during the next three months.

PC DRAM is sort of in the same boat as NAND flash, at least in terms of demand. The difference, however, goes back to inventory. Client SSD inventory is still high while DRAM inventory is much closer to normal levels. That isn’t likely to work itself out in the near future, either, as NAND flash manufacturers are pressing forward with 128-layer and QLC designs.

According to TrendForce, client SSDs will account for 31 percent of NAND flash bit demand in 2021 while enterprise SSDs will consume 20 percent. eMMC/UFS (embedded MultiMediaCard / Universal Flash Storage) devices and raw NAND wafers will account for 41 percent and eight percent of bit output, respectively.

macOS Big Sur

Essai Big Sur 11, le nouveau système macOS 

Après l’annonce il y a cinq mois de l’arrivée de Big Sur, Apple a récemment mis au jour son nouveau système d’exploitation à la fois compatible avec ses ordinateurs à processeur Intel et ceux à puce-système M1 des tout nouveaux Mac mini, MacBook Air et MacBook Pro. 

Après avoir reçu ce dernier il y a deux semaines pour remplacer ce même modèle d’ordinateur portatif à processeur Intel (i5, 2,3GHz, 2017), je ne me souviens pas d’avoir eu une aussi bonne machine depuis 2006. C’était l’époque de Mac OS X 10.6.8, nom de code « Snow Leopard » et de ma première tour Mac Pro (1.1). 

BIG SUR 11.1       

Pour ceux que cela intéresse, le nom « Big Sur » désigne une partie de la côte californienne très montagneuse dont les falaises sont adossées à l’océan Pacifique. Fidèle à son habitude, Apple nomme depuis plusieurs années ses systèmes d’après des sites et des parcs naturels.

Essai Big Sur 11, le nouveau système macOS


S’il y a une chose à retenir de ce système, c’est qu’Apple cherche à effacer les différences entre ses systèmes macOS et mobile iOS. À cela, plusieurs caractéristiques et fonctions du système iOS se sont retrouvées sur l’interface des Mac.

Par exemple, si vous accédez à votre compte App Store sur votre Mac (au besoin, cliquez sur votre nom en bas à gauche), vous pourrez voir et même installer des applications mobiles de votre iPhone ou iPad sur votre ordinateur si celui-ci tourne sur une puce maison Apple M1.

Essai Big Sur 11, le nouveau système macOS

Cela dit, s’il est possible d’en installer, rares sont les éditeurs qui ont prévu de rendre compatibles leurs applications et jeux sur iOS pour des claviers et souris d’ordinateur.

Après quelques tentatives, j’en ai trouvé une, l’appli mobile SAQ fonctionne sans problèmes sur mon nouveau MacBook Pro M1.

Essai Big Sur 11, le nouveau système macOS


Sur le plan de l’interface graphique, on observe quelques changements comme la barre de menus translucide et les icônes d’applications similaires à iOS.

Essai Big Sur 11, le nouveau système macOS

Emprunté à iOS, le panneau Centre de contrôle également simple et translucide se trouve dans le coin supérieur droit de l’écran. De celui-ci, on peut glisser-déposer des éléments dans la barre de menu.

À droite de la barre des menus, cliquer sur la date fait apparaître le Centre des notifications que l’on peut reclasser, modifier ou supprimer. Désormais empilées par groupe, on découvre là aussi l’influence d’iOS.


Apple indique que son navigateur Safari est en moyenne 50 % plus rapide que Chrome et que les codes JavaScript sont exécutés 1,5 fois plus vite sur les Mac M1.

De plus, la page d’accueil du navigateur d’Apple est personnalisable avec une photo, une liste de lecture et d’onglets iCloud. Safari peut également détecter et traduire en français des pages Web entières à partir de sept langues.

Soucieux de la vie privée et de la confidentialité des données sur le Web, le géant à la pomme donne aux utilisateurs d’ordinateurs Mac un aperçu des pisteurs qui ont été stoppés pendant les navigations. En outre, Safari offre le choix d’indiquer quels sites Web peuvent fonctionner avec une extension.

Essai Big Sur 11, le nouveau système macOS

Mais il y a quelques ratés ici et là. Le mode Veille ne semble pas au point. Safari a planté pendant mon heure du lunch aujourd’hui et, par deux fois, mon MacBook Pro M1 a redémarré pendant la nuit alors qu’il était relié à ma station d’accueil Thunderbolt Caldigit TS3. Comme à chaque fois, des rapports sont automatiquement envoyés chez Apple.


Après deux semaines au clavier du MacBook Pro M1, l’autonomie sur pile est vraiment impressionnante. Les 20 heures annoncées sont aisément réalisables. J’ai même pu regarder un film complet en ligne sur Netflix avec seulement 20 % d’autonomie… et à la fin il restait du « jus » comme on dit.

Mon utilisation sur le MacBook Pro Intel qui n’a rien du professionnel multimédia faisait monter la température interne et tourner à fond le ventilateur. Sous une utilisation similaire, voire pire, le M1, lui, reste froid à tous les châtiments. Pas une fois je n’ai entendu les ventilateurs tourner.

Le module Battery Health 2 installé sur les deux MacBook Pro confirme la frugalité électrique du nouveau et la voracité de l’ancien. Plusieurs degrés Celcius et watts les séparent.

ROSETTA 2       

Très bien réalisée, Rosetta 2 est l’interface qui traduit à la volée pour les puces-système M1 le codage des applications conçues pour les processeurs Intel. Jusqu’ici, rien à dire, c’est rapide au point où on ne voit pratiquement pas de différences dans l’ouverture et l’exécution des logiciels pré-M1.

Comme indiqué dans mon précédent texte sur le nouveau MacBook Pro M1, c’est le support d’un seul écran externe contre deux précédemment qui me fait grincer.

Pourtant, Apple indique qu’il peut gérer un écran externe de 6K. Pareille résolution équivaut à trois écrans 2K – des écrans que la vaste majorité d’utilisateurs d’ordinateur utilise. Le Mac mini M1 qui est doté du même système sur puce que les MacBook Pro et Air portatifs, batterie en moins, peut gérer deux écrans, l’un sur le port HDMI en 6K, le second sur le port Thunderbolt 3 en 4K.

En cherchant ici et là sur le Web, des solutions existent pour outrepasser cette limite d’un seul écran. Je vous en reparle dès que je reçois les adaptateurs graphiques.


Si vous êtes fatigués des ordinateurs portatifs trop chauds et des ventilateurs bruyants, vous serez agréablement surpris par la relative froideur des MacBook (Air ou Pro) M1.

Pour faire chauffer au maximum mon nouveau MacBook Pro M1, j’ai installé le programme d’informatique distribuée Folding@Home qui emprunte les capacités de calcul de l’ordinateur pour effectuer des recherches scientifiques et le widget MenuBar Stats pour avoir les données de température.

Après une nuit et une journée de traitement, la température moyenne des 8 cœurs de la puce M1 tourne autour de 72 degrés C, ce qui correspond à celle d’un ordinateur soumis intensivement à un jeu vidéo. Le ventilateur tout à fait silencieux ne tourne qu’à 1200 tr/min, soit 17 % de la capacité. Sachez que la température d’un processeur Intel peut grimper jusqu’à 100 degrés C.

MenuBar Stats m’indique aussi la température des repose-mains de part et d’autre du pavé tactile : seulement 31 et 29 C alors que l’ordinateur tourne à plein régime.

UniBeast: Install macOS Catalina on Any Supported Intel-based PC

UniBeast: Install macOS Catalina on Any Supported Intel-based PC


The following guide is a complete walkthrough for updating to or installing a fresh version of macOS Catalina. It requires no experience and all of the basic installation and post-installation tools are available on tonymacx86.com.

Table of Contents

Before You Begin

  1. Register here at tonymacx86! If you don’t have a user account, create one!
  2. Get our latest UniBeast and MultiBeast tools from the downloads section.
  3. Purchase a 16GB or 32GB USB drive.
  4. Do a full backup of your system. We strongly recommend performing a full backup of your existing system using Carbon Copy Cloner. By doing this, you can always go back to your working installation.

UniBeast is a tool that creates a bootable installer out of your downloaded version of macOS. In order to start fresh, you’ll need access to a functional computer running OS X Mountain Lion 10.8.5 or later. This is a requirement, as you need access to the Mac App Store to download macOS and create the installation drive. To start from scratch, booting the 10.6 Snow Leopard Retail DVD directly, check out iBoot + MultiBeast.

Existing Clover users may do a direct update to macOS Catalina by simply running the Install macOS Catalina app as normal Mac users would. Follow these steps: Update Directly to macOS Catalina.


STEP 1: Download macOS Catalina
The full operating system is a free download for anyone who has purchased Mac OS X Snow Leopard, Lion, or Mountain Lion or has a Mac preloaded with OS X Mavericks, Yosemite, El Capitan, macOS Sierra, macOS High Sierra, or macOS Mojave.

1. Download the Application from the Mac App Store using your Apple ID on any of these specific Macs:​
MacBook (Early 2015 or newer)​
MacBook Air (Mid 2012 or newer)​
MacBook Pro (Mid 2012 or newer)​
Mac mini (Late 2012 or newer)​
iMac (Late 2012 or newer)​
iMac Pro (2017)​
Mac Pro (Late 2013 model or newer)​
(NOTE: If you do not have access to one of these Macs, you can still download and install the latest version of macOS. Follow the instructions here.)​


2. Open Mac App Store
3. Log in with your Apple ID​
4. Download macOS Catalina

The Application Install macOS Catalina will appear in /Applications.

STEP 2: Create a Bootable USB Drive with UniBeast
Take a deep breath and take your time- this is pretty simple, but it’s easy to miss things if you rush. Follow each step to the letter.

  1. If you are using a Mac running macOS Catalina that has System Integrity Protection (SIP) enabled, you must disable it using the following steps:
    1. Restart your Mac.
    2. Before macOS starts up, hold down Command-R and keep it held down until you see an Apple icon and a progress bar. Release. This boots you into Recovery.
    3. From the Utilities menu, select Terminal.
    4. At the prompt type exactly the following and then press Return:
      csrutil disable
    5. Terminal should display a message that SIP was disabled.
    6. From the  menu, select Restart.
  2. Insert the USB drive
  3. Open /Applications/Utilities/Disk Utility
  4. Highlight the USB drive in left column (Note: in the Catalina version of Disk Utility, you must first select View / Show All Devices before you can see the USB drive there)
5. Click Erase button​
6. For Name: type USB (You can rename it later)​
7. For Format: choose Mac OS Extended (Journaled)
8. Click Erase then Done
9. Download and run UniBeast
9. Click ContinueContinueContinueContinueAgree
10. At Destination Select, choose USB and click Continue
11. At Select OS Installation screen choose Catalina and click Continue
12. At Bootloader Options screen choose UEFI Boot Mode or Legacy Boot Mode. UEFI Boot Mode is recommended for 7/8/9/100/200/300 Series CustoMac desktops and all UEFI capable systems. Legacy Boot Mode is recommended for 5/6 Series CustoMac desktops and all BIOS based systems.​
13. (Optional) At Graphics Configuration screen choose the appropriate graphics option for your system and click Continue.​
14. Verify installation options, then click Continue, enter password and click Install
Screen Shot 2019-12-30 at 6.20.50 PM.png

UniBeast will now create the bootable USB drive. The process will only take about 10 minutes, depending on system and drive speed. Do not unplug or stop during this time.

15. Drag MultiBeast to your completed USB drive.​

Clover Note: UniBeast delivers basic bootloader support based on our testing on recommended CustoMac systems. For further bootloader customization, download and run the official Clover package. Advanced users may also compile Clover by downloading the full source.

STEP 3: Recommended BIOS Settings
If you’re installing on a recommended CustoMac desktop with AMI UEFI BIOS, the options are simple. For other systems make sure to set your BIOS to Optimized Defaults, and your hard drive to AHCI mode. Here are standard AMI UEFI BIOS settings for

  1. To access BIOS/UEFI Setup, press and hold Delete on a USB Keyboard while the system is booting up
  2. Load Optimized Defaults
  3. If your CPU supports VT-d, disable it
  4. If your system has CFG-Lock, disable it
  5. If your system has Secure Boot Mode, disable it
  6. Set OS Type to Other OS
  7. If your system has IO Serial Port, disable it
  8. Set XHCI Handoff to Enabled
  9. If you have a 6 series or x58 system with AWARD BIOS, disable USB 3.0
  10. Save and exit.



STEP 4: Install macOS Catalina
You’re almost done! All you need to do is boot from the USB drive and install!

  1. Turn on the computer
  2. Press the hotkey to choose boot device (F12 for Gigabyte motherboards, F8 for ASUS motherboards, F11 for ASrock motherboards)
  3. Choose USB


4. At Clover boot screen, choose Boot macOS Install from Install macOS Catalina
5. When you arrive at the Installer, choose language.​

If you have issues reaching the installer, you can use spacebar on boot screen to enter alternate boot modes such as verbose and safe mode. For more instructions on entering boot flags see Clover Basics and Switching Advice.

6. For a new installation of macOS, you MUST erase and format the destination drive according to the following steps before continuing.​
a. From the macOS Utilities menu, open Disk Utility
b. In upper left corner, choose View. Then Show All Devices.
c. Highlight your target drive for the Catalina installation in left column.​
d. Click Erase button​
e. For Name: type Catalina (You can rename it later)​
f. For Format: choose APFS
g. Click Erase
h. Close Disk Utility


7. When the installer asks you where to install, choose Catalina
8. Upon completion, the system will automatically restart.​
9. Press the hotkey to choose boot device (F12 for Gigabyte motherboards, F8 for ASUS motherboards, F11 for ASrock motherboards)​
10. Choose USB
11. At the Boot Screen, choose Catalina
12. Complete macOS installation. The system will automatically reboot.​

STEP 5: Post Installation with MultiBeast

MultiBeast is an all-in-one post-installation tool designed to enable boot from hard drive, and install support for Audio, Network, and Graphics. The installation is complete, but the drive isn’t bootable yet. Boot from the USB again, this time choosing Catalina.

  1. Press the hotkey to choose boot device (F12 for Gigabyte motherboards, F8 for ASUS motherboards, F11 for ASrock motherboards)
  2. Choose USB
  3. At the Boot Screen, choose your new Catalina installation.
  4. Complete macOS setup
  5. Open and run MultiBeast
6. If this is a fresh installation, click Quick Start. UEFI Boot Mode is recommended for 7/8/9/100/200/300 Series CustoMac desktops and all UEFI capable systems. Legacy Boot Mode is recommended for 5/6 Series CustoMac desktops and all BIOS based systems.​
7. Choose the appropriate Drivers options for your system.​
8. Click Bootloaders and Customize for further options​
9. Click Print or Save to back up your configuration​
10. Click Build then Install
11. Reboot​



Yay! You now have a fully updated bootable version of macOS Catalina on your CustoMac! And a super handy USB rescue drive. It’s easy to get frustrated, but don’t give up! If you get stuck, there are many users with similar hardware in the tonymacx86 Forum to provide support.

Thanks to all of the hard working developers, hackers, and testers all over the world without whom this guide would never have been possible.

Troubleshooting and Optimizations:
After you’ve completed the guide, things such as HDMI audio and iMessage may not work automatically. The list below should serve to fully optimize your system after initial setup.

Update Directly to MacOS Catalina
MacOS Catalina (10.15) Problems and Workarounds
UniBeast Troubleshooting Notes
macOS Catalina Cleanup: Remove Kexts From /Library/Extensions and Recache
macOS 10.15 Catalina: How to Mount Root Partition Read/Write for Post-Installation
EFI Mounter v3.1
Video Guide to making a UniBeast Installer
[GUIDE] Installing 3rd Party Kexts – El Capitan, Sierra, High Sierra, Mojave +
Full Acceleration for Intel HD 3000 and older NVIDIA Graphics in macOS Catalina
An iDiot’s Guide To Lilu and its Plug-ins
An iDiot’s Guide To iMessage
The New Beginner’s Guide to USB Port Configuration
[Release] Hackintool (configuration utility)
[GUIDE] General Framebuffer Patching Guide (HDMI Black Screen Problem)
[Guide] Intel Framebuffer patching using WhateverGreen
macOS Native CPU/IGPU Power Management
[FAQ] READ FIRST! Laptop Frequent Questions
[Guide] Booting the OS X installer on LAPTOPS with Clover

This list will be updated.

Clover Note: UniBeast and MultiBeast deliver basic bootloader support based on our testing on recommended CustoMac systems. For further bootloader customization, download and run the official Clover package. Advanced users may also compile Clover by downloading the full source.

Contains Clover 5.0 r5106
UniBeast and MultiBeast contain and deliver files from the Clover EFI Bootloader project. Clover is an open source bootloader project based on different projects: Clover, rEFIt, XNU, VirtualBox. Copyright © 2019 CloverHackyColor. Source and official downloads are available here.

Slice, with help of Kabyl, usr-sse2, jadran, Blackosx, dmazar, STLVNUB, pcj, apianti, JrCs, pene, FrodoKenny, skoczy, ycr.ru, Oscar09, xsmile, SoThOr, rehabman, Download-Fritz, Zenit432, cecekpawon…

Source code credits to:
Intel, Apple, Oracle, Chameleon, rEFIt and Xom. Copyright © 2012-2020

Clover Source and Downloads:
Github: Clover

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